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Volume V Number 8 


Editorial John Collier 1 

The Indian. Service Manual Approaches Completion . • Walter V. Woehlke ...5 
General Federation Of Women's Clubs Aids Indians 

In Mendocino County, California 6 

Outbreak Of Rabies Under Control On Navajo John McPhee 7 

Truxton Canon Feast 8 

Encouraging Progress Seen In Oklahoma-Kansas Area 9 

Spybuck, The Shawnee Artist M. E. Harrington . . .13 

Na.vaj o Proper ty 15 

Indian Costumes Evelyn Pierce 17 

An Indian Woman Farmer Makes Fine Record 18 

CCC-ID Safety Program Trains Indians In Swimmers' 

Lif e-Saving Technique John P . Watson .... 19 

Cover Photograph 20 

Visiting Field Personnel 21 

Transfers Of Chief Clerks 21 

Torres-Martinez Indians Participate In Riverside 

County Fair Claude C . Cornwall . 22 

Dump Wagon System At Kyle Dam Meets With Success.. Elmus A. Bullard .. 23 

Pablo Abeita Named Postmaster At Isleta 24 

Never Too Old 25 

A "Co-op" Tasting Party Edward Huberman ... 26 

Kenneth 3. Disher Named To Staff Of Indian Arts 

And Crafts Board 28 

The Reclamation Of A Sand Dune Area C.J. Whi tf ield 

and F. C Newport -29 

From CCC-ID Reports 35 





Visits by groups of Sioux Indians to Washington in recent 
weeks have brought into view many interesting situations. 

The Wounded Knee massacre survivors have come. What a 
beam of light they - and Representative Case of South Dakota, speak- 
ing in their cause - shed upon a mournful phase of Indian history 
now forty-six years in the past. Those who are closely interested 
may obtain the departmental report on the pending bill which would 
compensate the survivors of the massacre. Three paragraphs are 
quoted here. 

The Wounded Knee incident properly has been 
called a "massacre." The historical facts are here set 
down as a basis for judgment by the Congress. 

The unrest and distress among the Sioux bands 
had increased in its intensity through a number of 
years prior to 1890. The causes of the Sioux misery 
need not here be recapitulated. There had been ruth- 
less violations of treaties and agreements, and numer- 
ous administrative abuses. It scarcely was possible 
for the Indians themselves to know what spots they were 

permitted to inhabit and what they were forbidden to in- 
habit, so sweeping and so casual had been the violations 
and unilateral abrogations of contract on the part of 
the Government. One of the responses of the Sioux In- 
dians, as of numerous other tribes similarly distressed, 
was the flight into messianic religious revivals. The 
messianic revival among the Sioux was known as the Ghost 
Dance Religion. 

It is important to note that these messianic 
revivals had taken place from time to time for many years 
among many Indian tribes and in no instance had they 
thrown the Indians into aggressive warfare with the 
whites. Neither acts of war, nor massacres nor depreda- 
tions, had resulted from the numerous messianic revivals. 
This record was known to the Government at the time. 

Four hundred Sioux, in family groups (whole families with 

all their transportable possessions) , assembled for the Ghost Dance 

ceremonies, were shot down by government troops - mass-firing into 

the congregation, and then an individual man-hunt (and woman and 

baby hunt) . General Miles wrote: "The official reports make the 

number killed 90 warriors and approximately 200 women and children." 

"This, all this was in the olden 
Time, long ago." 

In these terms we are accustomed to think of Indian wrongs. 
But not so - the Wounded Knee Massacre was almost now. 

A different focus was presented by spokesmen of the Sioux 
Treaty Council who had preceded the Wounded Knee survivors to' Wash- 
ington. Fundamentally, the Treaty Council spokesmen were troubled 
concerning the gulf which racial cross-breeding has opened between 
the full-blood and the mixed-blood Sioux. The gulf in a single 
generation has amounted to such a chasm as, in England for example, 
a thousand years of change would bring. Yet the groups on opposite 

aides of this gulf are inescapably bound together in status, in 
treaty claims, in ownership of existing property - briefly, in 
practical destiny. What wisdom of social procedure is called for- 
what tolerance both ways; what an active determination on both 
sides that minority rights and minority traits and preferences 
shall be regarded. The thing that is realized by few whites, is 
that Indian tribes in the grip of this problem are struggling with 
issues as profound as are those issues which now hold much of Con- 
tinental Europe in an agony and in an extreme peril. 

Civil rights are not easy to maintain within groups pos- 
sessed of very inadequate resources, whose members can not or will 
not abandon the group relationship - groups facing an economic 
crisis due to a permanently insufficient physical basis for the 
group life. All of the Sioux tribes are thus situated. Therefore, 
I think that the handling of the American Horse case by the organ- 
ized Pine Eidge tribe was significant. 

Tried before the local (or "Junior") court for raising 
money under false pretenses, American Horse was convicted. Appar- 
ently, he had made representations broadly incorrect about the Re- 
organization Act, and representations whose practical effect was 
to work against the tribe's material and acute needs as seen by 
many fellow- tribesmen. Appealed to the appelate court (tribal, 
and autonomous, i.e., not subject to Indian Office review), the 
verdict of the Junior court was reversed. The appelate court, 

clearly determined that civil liberty should be guarded, resolved 
the uncertainties (and the facts of the case were delicately bal- 
anced; indeed, American Horse apparently had violated some precious 
and revered Old Sioux values and traditions) in favor of the de- 
fendant. These procedures were all the Indians' own. 


From this deep-dyed weave of the human-social problem, 
pass to what Regional Forester William Zeh discovered when he ex- 
plored the desert out west of the Papago reservation in Arizona, 
near the Old Mexico border. 

He found a whole Indian population consisting of one man 
and his family. In that glorious-sounding place, the Organ Pipe 
National Monument, solitary at days' journey away from anybody, 
Jose Juan Crosco cultivates his fifteen acres and runs his hundred 
cows. He and his predecessors in interest (they once numbered a 
good many families, who died from a pestilence) have been in this 
same place time out of mind. Zeh and his party recommend: "It is 
necessary that approximately 100,000 acres be set aside for Orosco's 
use to prevent over-use." A hundred thousand acres for a hundred 
cows. Oh, happy land of elbow-room, natural glory, and peace from 

J^ A— 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

By Walter V. Woehlke, Assistant to the Commissioner 

There is -under way in the Washington Office now an effort 
to produce, for the benefit of the administrators of the Service, 
a manual of Indian Service administration to take the place of in- 
numerable circulars and orders that have been pouring out over the 
field for many years. This work is going on concurrently with the 
task of codifying the Departmental regulations which have the force 
of law. 

The urgent necessity for the compilation of such a manual 
became apparent late in 1933 when Ward Shepard, then Land-Use Spec- 
ialist, trundled into the Commissioner's office one day a truck 
containing a huge box six feet high, filled to the top and flowing 
over with single copies of the orders and circulars issued during 
the preceding fifteen years. As a result of this exhibition, the 
compilation, condensation, and indexing of this mass of administra- 
tive directions was undertaken by a small staff on special detail; 
but after six arduous months the staff was dispersed, the task was 
left unfinished, and the torrent of orders and circulars continued 
in accelerated volume. 

But the cries of distress from the field personnel, en- 
gulfed in the constantly rising flood of mimeographed material, 
continued, and their appeals for help grew more urgent, as the 
rising tide threatened the sanity of those conscientious administra- 
tive officials in the field who were trying to carry out the Wash- 
ington instructions and mandates. 

In this emergency, Commissioner Collier turned to the 
field to get the job done. Last summer he commissioned Superin- 
tendent S. D. Aberle of the Pueblo jurisdiction to make a compila- 
tion and summary of all the orders and circulars available in the 

This job - the sorting, arranging, analyzing, and con- 
densation of the raw material - was finished in February. Some 
10,000 pages of orders and circulars were reduced to 1,000 pages. 
Even this number, when mimeographed and bound in seven parts, made 
a stack ten inches from head to foot. In this ten-inch stack were 
the abstracts of some 3,500 numbered orders, with more than a hun- 
dred numbered orders still missing, together with an undetermined 
amount of unnu mbered circular material. 

Now a dozen specialists in the various divisions of the 
Washington Office are going over the compilation as it affects their 
particular divisions. When the job is done and it has had Depart- 
mental approval, there will be available for the field a loose-leaf 
manual containing the text of all general Departmental regulations 
applicable to the Indian Service, together with the explanatory, in- 
terpretive, and directive orders and circulars. Vi/hen this job is 
completed, the field will have at its disposal in not more than two 
volumes a compendium of all surviving Departmental and Indian Serv- 
ice rules and regulations, orders, and circulars, arranged according 
to function, and properly indexed, so that the field personnel nay 
be able to locate the text of the applicable regulation in short 

After this manual has been issued, all new orders and 
circulars will be sent out in the form of amendments to the existing 
regulations or as additions thereto, so that these amendments can be 
substituted in the loose-leaf book by removing old provisions and 
substituting the new ones. 

A limited number of copies of the preliminary compilation 
is available. Interested superintendents may receive a copy of this 
preliminary codification, provided they file their applications early. 


Under the chairmanship of Mrs. Edith V. A. Murphey, the In- 
dian Welfare group of the General Federation of Women's Clubs in Mendocino 
County, California, has interested itself actively in the Indian Service 
program. The development of self-help clubs among Indian women, coopera- 
tion in placement of young Indians in private employment, and help in the 
marketing of the fine Indian basketry made in the locality are three ex- 
amples of concrete help offered by these friends of Indians. In making 
her report for the past year, Mrs. Murphey stated: 

"It will be readily seen that the fine array of officials now 
working among these Indians makes the work of the Indian Welfare Chair- 
man much less onerous than it was several years ago. The joyful part of 
it is that there is so much more that Indians can do to help themselves. 
To those of us who have followed Indian troubles and difficulties through 
many years, it is a pleasure to see dreams come true, and visions become 
matters of routine." 


By John McPhee, Exhibit and Information Assistant 
Navajo Agency, Arizona 

Swift steps to stamp out an epidemic of rabies (hydro- 
phobia) on the Navajo Reservation where eleven persons were recent- 
ly bitten by mad dcgs -undoubtedly saved many lives in that area. 
This health menace, moreover, could easily have spread into adjoin- 
ing populated centers in three states with serious consequences if 
the emergency had not been handled promptly by the Indian Service 
medical unit. The victims, now reported out of danger after treat- 
ment, are four Navajo Indians and seven whites, all living on the 
reservation. Five are children from three to seven years old. 

Rabies first appeared at Denethotso, Arizona, when a 
three-year-old boy was bitten on the face by his dog. The child 
was rushed to the hospital at Kayenta, twenty-seven miles away and 
given emergency treatment pending the arrival of Pasteur serum. 
Twenty-six dogs were killed in the district as rabies suspects and 
their heads examined for signs of hydrophobia. Other dogs whose 
behavior was suspicious were impounded as a precautionary measure. 
(A characteristic of rabid dogs is that they often run in an un- 
swerving line for distances as great as forty miles, biting trees 
and moving objects in their mad dash.) 

An emergency call went to the Army Medical College in 
Washington, D. C, and a large quantity of the Pasteur prophylactic 
serum was rushed to the Indian hospital at Kayenta, furthest post 
office from a railroad in the United States. Dog quarantines were 
established by Indian Service doctors on the reservation and by 
public health physicians in McKinley County, New Mexico. The full- 
est cooperation from dog owners on and off the reservation was 
demanded to check the spread of the disease. 

Wholesale execution of Navajo dogs was deemed unwise be- 
cause of the important part they play in Navajo economy. Thousands 
of the wiry animals are used by the Indians to herd their sheep. 
The reservation is also densely populated by wild dogs which mingle 
with the coyotes. Rabies among the coyotes some years ago accounted 
for the loss of thousands of sheep which were bitten by the mad 
animals. The potentialities of a serious outbreak of rabies in 
this fertile field made the present emergency all the more alarming. 

Rabies is distinctly a disease of warm-blooded animals, 
but is most commonly seen in the dog. It is communicated to human 

beings through the bites of rabid animals and is caused by a virus 
which enters the system through the broken skin and finds its way 
to the spinal cord and then to the brain. When the disease develops 
in the human being it is almost invariably fatal. 

Commissioner Collier praised the Navajos for their cooper- 
ation in checking the outbreak. 3y word of mouth, the warning 
quickly spread over the 16,000,000- acre reservation. "Our dogs are 
sick. If they bite you or your children, go fast to the Agency." 
The Navajos knew that their best friends could be their most vicious 
enemies • 


From the Truxton 
Canon Agency at Valentine, 
Arizona, in the bottom of 
the Grand Canyon, come these 
pictures of a dance and 
feast held at the Agency. 
C. F. Shaffer, school prin- 
cipal, was the photographer. 


Encouraging progress in the conduct of Indian affairs in 
the Oklahoma-Kansas area i9 summed up in a report to Commissioner 
Collier from Coordinator A. C. Monahan, who points out that the 
past year marked the birth of a new spirit of cooperation between 
superintendents and supervisors, "who are keeping in mind the total 

By arrangement with the Oklahoma Department of Education, 
50 per cent of the money paid for tuition of Indian children is 
used for the "Indian enrichment program." Local school district 
taxes supplemented by state aid and 50 per cent of the Federal mon- 
ey is sufficient to maintain a school of ordinary standards. 

The additional 50 per cent is used for the purchase of 
text books for Indian children, educational equipment, supplemen- 
tary readers, tools for garden work, the employment of special 
teachers, for lengthening of the school term and similar services. 
Plans have been laid, to introduce the same enrichment program in 
the schools of the Five Tribes area during the coming year. 

Community Schools In The Five Civilized Tribes Area 

There are now in the Five Tribes area fifteen special day 
schools for Indian children. These are public schools located in 
communities where the attendance is almost wholly Indian. Since 
practically all the support money is from Federal funds, selection 
of teachers and supervision of programs is handled by Indian Serv- 
ice representatives in cooperation with local school district of- 
ficials. In eight cases these schools are conducted in Federally- 
owned buildings. 

Each one of these schools is becoming a real community 
center. The principal teacher in the school is the community lead- 
er. Varied activities for adults as well as children are carried 
on. Active steps are being taken to organize the Indians in each 
of these communities into cooperatives under the terms of the Okla- 
homa Indian Welfare Act. It is planned to purchase equipment and 
stock through these cooperatives for the use of the communities and 
to operate community gardens whose produce will be canned in the 
schools by women and girl pupils, part to be used in preparing noon- 
day lunches for the children, the rest to be taken to Indian homes. 
This type of cooperative enterprise was very successfully carried 
out in the Sour John School and others during the past year. These 

schools have an ample supply of vegetables for school lunches for 
the entire school year. 

Four New Schools Built 

Four new buildings built with Federal funds during the 
past year were constructed from plans of the Eosenwald Fund and 
the State Department of Education. They include under one roof a 
classroom, a community room for sewing, cooking and other activi- 
ties to be used either by adults or school children, and a shop 
room equipped with a forge, anvil and bench to be used by adults 
in repairing of farm equipment and by older male pupils • Each has 
a four-room teacherage. At three additional special schools com- 
munity buildings have been erected with Rehabilitation funds and 
are being used for general community activities in addition to be- 
ing used by the school. 

Boarding School Programs Broadened 

There are twelve boarding schools in Oklahoma and one in 
Kansas. Chilocco, primarily an agricultural trade school is oper- 
ating efficiently under a redirected program. The four boarding 
schools in Western Oklahoma, will by next year cover twelve grades, 
and the number of grades in eastern Oklahoma, schools is being in- 
creased. Every effort is being made to sift intelligently the pu- 
pils who are eligible for boarding schools, which are operated 
primarily for orphans, children from broken homes, and children 
from sections of the state where public schools are not available. 
Most of these schools now have agricultural instructors and empha- 
sis is being placed on work in agriculture and housekeeping. Oc- 
casionally meetings are being held for the principals so that pro- 
grams may be worked out together. 

Haskell Institute is following closely the reorganization 
begun two years ago and is probably doing better work today than 
at any time in the last decade. Its commercial department accepts 
only Indian boys and girls who have completed high school work. 

Student Loans Benefit Over Two Hundred 

Student loans have been made to approximately 164 Okla- 
homa young men and women attending the Oklahoma A & M College, the 
University of Oklahoma, State Teachers Colleges, the University of 
Kansas and others scattered in institutions such as business 


colleges and hospitals, both in Oklahoma and elsewhere. This does 
not include over fifty loan students enrolled in the Commercial 
Department at Haskell Institute. 

Oklahoma Health Service Supplemented By New Personnel 

And Equipment 

Probably the most important advance in the health setup 
for the state is made possible through an appropriation for field 
services in the Five Tribes. A supervising physician and a super- 
vising nurse have been appointed with headquarters in Muskogee at 
the Agency office. Seven contract physicians and seven field 
nurses are being appointed. Two half-time nurses are already at 
work (at Wheelock Academy and at Carter Seminary) devoting half 
time to the school children and half time to the neighboring terri- 
tory working with adults and children in their homes. 

The William W. Hastings General Hospital at Tahlequah 
(79 beds) is completed and will probably be opened about May 1. 
The new Choctaw-Chickasaw Hospital and Sanitorium at Talihina (150 
beds for tuberculosis cases, 75 general beds) is completed and 
will probably open by July 1. The Claremore Hospital has been en- 
larged to a capacity of 74 beds. The Kiowa Hospital Annex with a 
capacity for 29 beds is completed and in operation. It is used 
for tuberculosis patients. A new dormitory for nurse-aid students 
is completed at the Kiowa Hospital and is in use. This course has 
been in successful operation for three years. 

Extension Staff Supplemented 

A supervisor of Extension for the Oklahoma-Kansas area 
began work late in the summer of 1937. The Extension personnel at 
Oklahoma agencies has been increased slightly during the, year to 
make a total of 51 men and women working on agricultural and home 
extension activities. 

Oklahoma. City Office Places 470 

The Oklahoma City office has placed during the year 41 In- 
dians in the Indian Service, 26 in other government offices, 124 
in PWA construction, 114 in industrial and commercial positions. 
The Assistant Placement Officer in Oklahoma City is concerned pri- 
marily with securing employment for household workers. Approximate- 
ly 65 girls have been placed in Oklahoma City, 50 in Tulsa and ap- 
proximately 20 in other towns in Oklahoma. Approximately 30 have 
been placed in Wichita and Topeka, Kansas. 


Subsistence Gardens Developed 

During 1937 eight subsistence gardening irrigation proj- 
ects have "been completed at Indian hoarding schools and resettle- 
ment projects. One hundred seventeen acres have been put under ir- 
rigation at a total cost of approximately $55,000. Five additional 
projects are under construction. Seventy-five acres will be irri- 
gated at a cost of $20,000. A comprehensive study of irrigation 
needs in Oklahoma is now under way, and plans are being developed 
for desirable projects to be constructed during the next ten or 
twelve years. 

CCC-ID Work Centers Around Soil - Saving Operations 

An allotment of approximately $900,000 was made to Oklahoma, 
Kansas and Texas for the present year. Monthly employment is furnished 
approximately 1,600 men. Emphasis has been placed on soil conser- 
vation, the work consisting largely of terracing, contouring, check 
dam construction, diversion of water to prevent erosion, truck 
trails and tree planting. Numerous stock ponds have been built, 
and wells dug or drilled. Approximately 100 miles of shelterbelt 
work on allotted lands is under way, the work being done under the 
supervision of the U. S. Forest Service. Two camps for young men 
are in the process of construction, one in Delaware County and one 
in the Wichita Mountain Wild Life Refuge for work on Indian land 
north and west of the Refuge. 

Careful ground work has been done in encouraging crafts 
work throughout the state. Indians are now making in considerable 
quantities, for example, baskets, neckties, moccasins, silver and 
leather work and rugs. A group in McCurtain County, under the 
leadership of an expert teacher, is spinning wool and is now pro- 
ducing excellent yarn. 

Land Purchased For Oklahoma Indians 

The Land Division, located at Muskogee, during 1937 obli- 
gated by option 12,148 acres of land at a cost of $234,190. This 
includes 99 farms, all of which have been accepted for purchase by 
the Department of the Interior. Fifty-one have been paid for and 
are now available for resettlement- For the fiscal year 1938 a 
contractual fund of $130,000 was allocated to Oklahoma. Twelve 
projects totaling approximately 3,000 acres and costing $57,000 
have been submitted to the Washington Office. An additional 3,050 
acres is under option at a total cost of approximately $45,000. In 
Kansas 935 acres are being purchased at a cost of $48,500. 


By M. R. Harrington, Director, The Southwest Museum, 
Los Angeles, California 

- : 


■■■■\ « 


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Twenty-eight years 
ago, when I first met Spy- 
buck, the Shawnee painter, 
Indian artists were anything 
but numerous. In fact, I 
had run across only one oth- 
er, Jesse Cornplanter, the 
Seneca, in all ray travels 
among the tribes. I refer, 
of course, to Indians who 
produced pictures with the 
white man's materials and 
by his methods. There were, 
and always have been, many 
Indian artists working in 
strictly native materials 
along traditional lines. 

One day Bill Skye, 
my Peoria friend and assist- 
ant, piloted a shy young In- 
dian into our ethnological 
headquarters at Shawnee, Okla- 
homa, where we were gather- 
ing specimens and informa- 
tion for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, in 
New York. I noticed that the visitor carried a flat parcel under 
his arm; this, after some persuasion, he was induced to open. In- 
side were water-color paintings of horses, cattle and cowboys, all 
bearing the signature, written in a flowing hand, of "Earnest I. 
Spy buck." 

The pictures were unsophisticated, but the drawing was 
gooa, the general effect pleasing and the detail of costume and 
equipment unusually accurate - a fact which impressed me especially- 
It occurred to me then and there that I might engage Spybuck to re- 
cord in water-colors the ceremonies, games and customs of his own 
people and those of other tribes in the vicinity. 

Earnest L. Spybuck 


(Pictures By The Museum Of The American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York) 

' — J T 

^■^WWr Jim, 

Procession Before The Shawnee War Dance 

Shawnee Chicken Dance 

The young man was willing and as a result many of hie 
pictures adorn the walls of the Museum of the American Indian to- 
day; some were reproduced in color in a hook of mine on the Len- 
ape or Delaware Indians, while still others are awaiting publica- 
tion in another hook - this time on the Shawnee - still in manu- 
script form. 

Incidentally Spybuck and I became good friends and I 
learned something of his background. He was born in January, 1883; 
a member of the Athawikele division of the White Turkey Band of 
Absentee Shawnee. His clan I originally recorded as "Turtle", but 
a recent letter from him says "Rabbit." "Me-tha-thka-ka" is his 
Indian name according to my records, but he prefers to write it 
"Mathakacae" , and insists on spelling his first name "Earnest" 
rather than "Ernest." 

Married at the age of nineteen, Spybuck and his wife Anna 
(Sikapece) have brought three children into the world , two of whom, 
Thomas (Mathamaesheka) and Virgie (Paetaemaeshe) still survive. 
Thomas is a World War veteran. 

Spybuck 1 s schooling, he says, never extended beyond the 
Third Reader, and as far as drawing and painting are concerned, he 
is entirely self-taught. To quote his own words, "Mother Earth 
started me drawing." He explained that as a small child he made 
his first drawings of animals on the bare ground with a stick. 
Paper and pencil came later. Even better than Indian subjects, 
Spybuck loves to draw cowboys, live-stock and range scenes in gen- 
eral. A keen ooserver and possessed of an excellent memory, he 
usually studies his subject first in the field -and makes his draw- 
ings later; sometimes, however, he sketches directly from nature. 
He has experimented with oils, but his preferred medium is still 

At fifty-five, although much of his time must be devoted 
to the home and farm near Tecumseh, Oklahoma, Spybuck still delights 
in drawing and painting, still keeps his boyish enthusiasm. May he 
live many years and never lose it J 


Navajo property can be divided into five classifications: Nit-tlis 
or "Hard Goods", consisting of coin, silver ornaments, weapons, white and 
yellow shell, coral and cannel coal; Yudi or "Soft and Flexible Goods" con- 
sisting of cloth baskets, hides skins and clothing; Jish or "Ceremonial 
Values", consisting of chants, herbs, medicines, good luck formulae, sacred 
names , medicine bags, religious paraphernalia and magic formulae; Kay-yah or 
agricultural and range land; and Din-neh-chil-ah-tas-aye or "Game Goods", 
consisting of all domesticated or wild animals. Reprinted from the SOU'i.'HVi'.flST 






























































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By Evelyn Pierce, Assistant Guidance Officer, Indian Service 

Last month, five Indian girls, employees in the Indian Of- 
fice, gave a "fashion show" at the Montgomery Junior High School, 
Silver Spring, Maryland. Five Indian costumes, representing as many 
tribes and two periods in the evolution of the dress of Indian wom- 
en, were "modeled" for the students. The show had to he given twice 
as the auditorium would not seat all the students at one time. 

As an introduction, Miss Evelyn Pierce, a Seneca of New 
York, who is Assistant Guidance Officer in the Education Division, 
discussed briefly the story of Indian costumes in general, in- 
cluding the war-bonnet of the Plains Indians. Miss Pierce's costume 
was from the Cheyenne tribe and illustrated the use of two doeskins 
in fashioning the garment. The decorations were fringes and bea,ds 
made of dried berries. 

Miss Erma Hicks, a Cherokee of Oklahoma, was dressed in 
the costume of the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin. The dress was 
of buckskin beautifully embroidered with beads in a floral design 
common to northern woodland Indians of an earlier day. 

Miss Edna Portwood, a Shoshone of Wyoming, modeled a dress 
evolved by Winnebagos after traders had brought them broadcloth, 
silks, needles and thread. The skirt was a wrap-around with the 
front decorated in a conventional design of bright colored silks ap- 
pliqued with feather- stitching. Navy blue broadcloth was used for 
skirt and blouse. The blouse was of kimono style trimmed with strips 
of silk matching the colors of the applique on the skirt, stitched 
horizontally on front and back. 

Mrs. Esther Marchant, a Laguna from New Mexico, displayed 
a Navajo dress developed after traders had brought them calico and 
velveteen and they had acquired skill in fashioning silver jewelry. 
The skirt was of orange calico made very full and gathered at the 
waist into a band, with an eighteen-inch ruffle around the bottom 
which made it even fuller. The blouse was of purple velveteen held 
in place by a belt of silver conchos mounted on leather. Necklaces 
of silver beads, wampum and turquoise were worn; also bracelets and 
rings of silver and turquoise. 

Miss Isabel St. Arnold, a Chippewa of Michigan, wore a 
dress which is the present day style of the Seminole women of Florida. 


The background of the skirt was of yellow calico on which had been 
appliqued in the finest of hand sewing a complicated conventional 
design of many colors. The blouse, of blue silk with a yoke of yel- 
low sewed on with piping which repeated one of the colors used in 
the skirt, was worn loosely without a belt. Yards and yards of 
blue, black and yellow beads were worn around the neck. A Seminole 
woman's wealth and social standing are judged by the quality and 
quantity of beads she displays. 

The show closed with all five costumes being modeled at 
once so that the students could see how "styles" in Indian women's 
dresses vary even as do the dress styles of other races. 

From The Extension Report Of The Crow Creek Agency, South Dakota 

A noteworthy example was set this past year by Mrs. Amy 
Carpenter, an Indian woman living in the Fort Hale District. Her 
husband, Philip Carpenter, a Crow Creek Indian, was at one time 
the leading Indian farmer on this reservation. A few years ago, 
however, he suffered a stroke of paralysis and has been an invalid 
since. This misfortune, coupled with the unfavorable seasons that 
followed, put this family in hard circumstances. Feed loans, seed 
loans and resettlement aid kept them going. But this year Mrs- 
Carpenter made a successful come-back. From fifty-six acres of 
dry farm land which the family owned and from thirty-five acres of 
land leased on a share-crop basis she harvested eighty-nine tons 
of cane hay, seventy bushels of cane seed, eighteen tons of corn 
fodder, 168 bushels of corn and raised a good early garden. Ten 
acres were fallowed to comply with the AAA farm program. She also 
put up eighty tons of wild hay. She has fifty-three head of cattle, 
thirty-eight horses and seventy chickens. 

One-quarter section of their land had been deeded to them 
end during the herd times the taxes became delinquent. Mrs. Car- 
penter entered into a contract with the County to pay them off, 
and at the present time she has paid nearly all that was due, as 
well as clearing up some of her other debts. 



By John P. Watson, 
In Charge Safety Division, CCC - ID 

With the return of the 
swimming season a hazard to some 
8,000 people looms up. In 1933 
7,465 people in the United States 
were drowned; in 1934 7,326 were 
drowned; and in 1935 7,108 similar- 
ly lost their lives. 

On some Indian reserva- 
tions the drought has been so pro- 
longed that there has heen scarce- 
ly enough water to drown in. With 
the increase in the number of dams , 
stock ponds and reservoirs, however, 
it is probably true that the hazard 
of drowning ha-s increased in the 
past three years. Under CCC-ID' s 
safety program, young Indians are 
being trained in life-saving tech- 
nique, and the program will be con- 
tinued this year. 

Instructor Edwin Hoklotubbe 

The accompanying photo- 
graphs show the men who participated in the first Aquatic Training 
and Life-Saving Center held by the Indian Service last September 
in Muskogee, Oklahoma. 

The training school was arranged for by Harry C. Miller, 
Project Manager, CCC-IJ), A. B. Finney, District Camp Supervisor 
in charge of the safety program in CCC-ID District 9, and his as- 
sistant Donald B. Jones. Edwin Hoklotubbe, a Choctaw CCC-ID work- 
er from the Muskogee Agency, did all the teaching. He received 
his own training as a Life-Saving Examiner at the American Red 
Cross National Aquatic School held at Lake Lucerne, Eureka Springs, 
Arkansas, June 13 to 23, 1937. 


.m jgsjgHaEss ^iiisiBiii iiiiiiiiiiiiisiii 

rilllv i 

V 1!* ' 

. i 

Class Of CCC-ID Aquatic School Held At The Five Civilized 
Tribes, Muskogee, Oklahoma, September 7 to 11 Inclusive, 1937. 

Twelve men, representing four agencies, attended the 
center and all successfully completed the course and received cer- 
tificates. They are: Joe Blackhalf, Cheyenne, Cheyenne-Arapaho 
Agency; Pat Cookson, Cherokee; Jesse Foreman, Cherokee; George 
Sunday, Cherokee; Nick Bussey, Cherokee; Dick Bussey, Cherokee; 
Cicero Sixkiller, Cherokee; Lester Cooper, Choctaw; and William 
Fitzgerald, Choctaw, all of Five Civilized Tribes Agency; William 
Karty, Comanche, and Albert Tohetchy, Comanche, both from Kiowa 
Agency; and Bobert Downs, Kickapoo from the Shawnee Agency. 

These twelve men ere now qualified to teach enrollees 
in their own localities the fundamentals of water safety and the 
rescue and treatment of drowning swimmers . 


The photograph on the cover of this issue of "Indians At 
Work" shows an Indian woman in Fresno County, California, preparing 
acorn flour. Photograph by Frances Cooke Macgregor . 



Among the recent visitors to the Washington Office were 
the following superin ten dents: Charles W. Graves of Blackfeet 
Agency in Montana; Clyde M. Blair of Cherokee Agency in North 
Carolina; Lawrence E. Correll of Chilocco School in Oklahoma; Byron 
J. Brophy of Flandreau School in South Dakota; F. W. Boyd of Fort 
Belknap Agency in Montana; Russell M. Kelley of Haskell Institute 
in Kansas; E. Reeseman Fryer of Navajo Agency in Arizona; James W. 
Balmer of Pipestone School in Minnesota; Raymond H. Bitney of Red 
Lake Agency in Minnesota; Claude R. Whitlock of Rosebud Agency in 
South Dakota; and Roy Nash of Sacramento Agency in California. 

Other visitors to the Washington Office included the 
following: Edna Groves, Superintendent of Indian Education at 
Cherokee Agency in North Carolina; H. C. Seymour, Superintendent 
of Boarding Schools at United Pueblos Agency in New Mexico; Orpha 
McPherson, Associate Supervisor, Elementary Education, Navajo 
Agency in Arizona; Homer Morrison, Superintendent of Indian Educa- 
tion in Washington State; Kirk Newport, Principal at Rosebud Agency 
in South Dakota; W. 0. Nicholson, Principal at Pine Ridge in South 
Dakota; Gladys TantaQuidgeon, Social Worker at Rosebud in South 
Dakota; Miss Mary Stewart, Superintendent Indian Education at 
Sacramento Agency in California; Miss Clara Madsen, Social Worker 
at Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota; Louis Balsam, Field Representa- 
tive in Charge at Consolidated Chippewa Agency in Minnesota; James 
Pipe on Head, Sioux, Dewey Beard, Sioux, and William Whitewolf , 
Sioux, from Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota; and John McPhee, 
Exhibit and Information Assistant, Navajo Agency, Arizona. 

A delegation from the Blackfeet Tribe in Montana visited 
here recently. This delegation included Stuart Hazlett, Eddie Big- 
beaver, William Buffalo Hide and Sam Bird. 


Several transfers of chief clerks are being made; Raymond 
Boskiewicz will go from Carson Agency, Nevada, to Cheyenne and 
Arapaho Agency, Oklahoma, June 1; Lloyd G. Andrews will be trans- 
ferred from Keshena agency, Wisconsin, to Carson Agency; Lloyd B. 
Patterson will move from Western Shoshone Agency, Nevada to Keshena; 
Gordon J. Baber, who has been chief clerk at the Great Lakes Agency, 
Wisconsin, will become an auditor for the CCC-ID with headqiiarters 
at Billings, Montana; and Lyle Berger will be promoted from within 
the Great Lakes Agency staff to become chief clerk there. 


By Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID 

A new county fair had its be- 
ginnings on February 4, 5 and 6, in the 
famous Coachella Valley of California, 
at Indio, a city which is below the lev- 
el of the sea. The products of this 
valley are almost tropical in character. 
Dates and citrus fruits are the princi- 
pal crops. 

As their humble contribution 
to this beginning, the Torres-Martinez 
Indians of Mission Agency prepared their 
first exhibit of products in their home 
community. Under the leadership of 
Harry J. Hess, Farm Agent at Thermal, 
the Indians set up a booth illustrating 
contrasting scenes of Indian life - the 
old and the new. 
Date Palms 
Torres-Martinez Reservation A Tule house, a replica of the 

Mission Agency traditional Indian dwelling, was con- 

structed; the metates, grinding stones 
and stone mortars of ancient usage placed therein and the acorns 
and mesquite beans and other natural food products set in their 
proper places. This was the old. A bow and arrows were hung over 
the entrance, symbolic of the days when food was plenty, rather 
than produced from the cultivated soil. 

In contrast was the exhibit of modern products, of dates 
and oranges and grapefruit, of corn and beans. A pictorial panel 
illustrated these same contrasts* There were photographs of the 
old houses and the new. Tllere were also photographs of various In- 
dian Service activities: of CCC construction work, irrigation and 
road work, of extension activities, school work and health work. 

One of the teachers at school had complained that Domingo 
Lopez would not do anything but draw pictures. So she let him draw 
and the result was an exhibit of some thirty pencil and crayon 
sketches; still life, landscapes, portraits and figures. Lopez 
added the one artistic touch to the exhibits at the Riverside County 



By ELmis A. Bullard, Senior Foreman, CCC-ID 

"Circle" Of Wagons Approaching 

And Leaving The Elevator 

The dump 
wagon 87s tem here at 
the Kyle Dam is work- 
ing out very much to 
the .satisfaction of 
the foreman. The 
wasons move on an 
average of 1200 cubic 
yards of earth a day, 
a speed due largely 
to the fact that each 
man riding the wagon 
has shown a great in- 
terest in learning 
how to load and dump 
according to the in- 
structions given him. 
They are moving dirt with plenty of speed and accuracy. TTith all 
this hard work the teams and the men seem to be holding out in 
good shape. A few of the smaller teams, however, were found to be 
lagging and therefore were taken off the dump wagons and put on 
f resnoes . 

The dump truck has also been aiding the dump wagons in 
hauling dirt. However, this is only for part time and is used for 
other purposes. 

To date there are sixty horses on dump wagons and the 
caterpillar crew consists of twelve men working, by shifts, operat- 
ing a "35" Cat., a "70" Cat., an ED- 6, an ED-7 , two scrapers, one 
blade grader which is used on an average of one hour per day and 
one roller packer. The elevating grader is being used in loading 
dump wagons. This is the place where the skill comes in on the 
part of the teamsters as they must judge their distance in driving 
alongside the elevating machine so as not to get too close and not 
too far away. If one does not heed the instructions of the foreman, 
it is very easy for the teamsters to get knocked off their wagons 
by the dirt pouring into the wagon. There is also the tendency to 


drive too far away from the loader and it is quite possible to 
lose all the dirt and therefore necessitate a complete round for 
the teamster on an empty wagon. 

These wagons follow each other in rotation and it would 
make a break in their system if even one wagon interrupts the 
schedule. That is the reason why teamsters have to listen to in- 
structions given by the foreman. 

The dirt which is being moved comes from the Forebay and 
is being dumped in place where the old spillway washed out. 

We are pushing this work ahead with all possible speed 
in an effort to complete this work before a freeze comes in which 
might tend to hold up the work on this project- To date, as near 
as we can estimate, the dirt is being moved at a cost of 12 cents 
per yard, which is far below the cost of moving this dirt with 
f resnoes • It is a wonderful sight to see and watch these cater- 
pillars and wagons intermingle on the job. 

A supply shed 14' x 32' x 8' was constructed out here at 
the Dam for the purpose of storing cement, tools and other supplies 
that should not 
be left out in 
the open. Two 
men came from 
Pine Ridge and 
one man was sup- 
plied from the 
crew to help in 
the construction 
of the shed. Two 
days were requir- 
ed to construct 

this shed. jj^^ Wagon Leaving Grader And A Second Wagon 

Receiving Dirt From The Grader Elevator 


An Isleta Indian, Pablo Abeita, operates the post office 
on the Pueblo plaza- According to "The Southwest Tourist News", 
Pablo is the only Indian postmaster in New Mexico- 


gjjVgg TOO OLD 
Prom The Extension Eeport, Northern Idaho Agency, Idaho. 

A successful stockman at ninety? That hardly seems pos- 
sible: successful stockmen must he able to ride, to dig out water 
holes, repair fences and carry salt to the various range areas- 
But William Parsons, a Nez Perce Indian living near Karaiah, Idaho, 
is past ninety-two and is still doing all the jobs mentioned. 

In 1934 two drought relief cows were turned over to Mr. 
Parsons. Although he speaks no English, he thoroughly understood 
the obligations under which he was placed. In 1936 when both cows 
gave bull calves, he was somewhat worried, as he remembered his 
agreement was to return heifer calves. 

The two original cows were wild and their ribs could 
easily be counted, but two years later when an inspection was made, 
they were in good flesh and quite gentle, indicating the good care 
and attention that had been given them. William Parsons said he 
believed they would raise him heifer calves next time, so why not 
wait? With such an experienced stockman, who wouldn't be willing 
to grant more time? 

So more time was granted and he was permitted to sign up 
for two repayment heifers being turned in by another Indian fifteen 
miles away with the understanding that he would be responsible for 
the delivery. Well, this was no problem for a man of mere ninety; 
he just placed the saddle on his trusty horse, swung into the sad- 
dle and was off for his heifers. Next day, two none-too-gentle 
yearling heifers were driven into the pasture. William Parsons, 
Sr., had driven those animals himself fifteen miles. Was he tired? 
"Just a little," he said. But not so tired but that he was able 
to ride three miles the next day and make a report to the Farm Aid. 

In the fall of 1937 his two original cows had accommodat- 
ingly produced heifer calves, so William Parsons will be able to 
fulfill his obligation. 

% >lr >4r W 



By Edward Huberman 

Textbook Writer And Curriculum Research Worker, Indian Service 

A Group Of Consumers Testing Canned Peas 
In Washington, D. C 

Once your cooperative store or buying club is started, 
you may wonder what you can do to make sure you are getting the 
best quality goods for your money. You don't have to stay in the 
dark on this point because there are a number of good practical 
things you can do. Consider the tasting party, for example. 

Suppose your co-op store or buying club is in the market 
for canned peas. You want good peas and you don't want to pay too 
much for them. When the members of your buying committee visit 
the wholesalers, they may find at least ten different brands of 
canned peas in stock. Unless the packers have had their peas 
graded by an official grader from the Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 
nomics, you have no way of telling, from the outside of the cans, 
which brand is best. Of course, each can has a pretty picture of 
peas on it, a trade name, and some exciting words like "superfine", 


"luscious", "tender", "delicious", and"world'8 beet." Row you 
cannot tell, nor can anyone else, whether the peas inside an un- 
graded can are luscious, tender or delicious unless you open the 
can . And even then it might he hard to say whether the peas are 
"superfine" or "world's best." 

But open the can, and everything changes. Now you can 
tell a lot about the contents. You can learn how much is water, 
how much is vegetable. You can taste the peas to see whether they 
are "delicious" or "luscious", whether they have any flavor at all. 
You can see whether they are tender or mature, and whether they 
are all one size and color (this is important to some people). You 
can also find out if the peas are just plain "good to look at", and 
If they have any unpleasant spots or blemishes. 

Now here is how you can make good use of all the informa- 
tion you gain by using your can-opener. If your co-op is planning 
to buy several cases of peas, or any other canned food, you might 
run a "tasting party" at one of your meetings just before you put 
your order in. The purpose of the "tasting party" is to decide 
which brand you should buy. A tasting party is also a "testing" 
party, as you will soon see. 

First, one or two members of your buying committee might 
buy several single cans of peas, all cans the same size, but each 
a different brand. If any other members want to bring in cans of 
other brands, that's all right too. Well, suppose you have nine 
or ten different brands of canned peas lined up on a table in your 
meeting place. Take off the labels, but put a -mark or a number on 
each can so you will know which label belongs to which can. Then 
open each can separately, drain off the liquid and weigh what's 
left. Now you will know how much food you paid for, and how much 
water. Keep a separate chart for each can and write down all the 
things you learn. 

Hold up the liquid from each can in a glass to see how 
clear or cloudy it is. The clearer the liquid, the better it is 
supposed to be. Inspect the peas in each can for size, color and 
blemishes and taste them for tenderness, maturity and flavor, You 
might set up a score sheet something like this: 

Clearness of liquid 15 points 

Freedom from spots and blemishes .. 15 points 

Uniform si ze and color - . 10 points 

Tenderness and maturity 35 points 

Flavor 25 points 

As you will see, these points add up to 100. Practically 
no can of food will ever score a perfect 100, but often a can will 
score over 90. 



U.S.Grgdes of Canned 
Fruits ^Vegetables 
Labeled for Consumers 







(Picture Used Through Courtesy Of TJ. S. 
Department Of Agriculture, Bureau Of 
Agriculture Economics.) 

In scoring, 
you must remember that 
the points listed on the 
table represent the high - 
est score for each of 
the various items. Only 
8 practically clear 
liquid would receive a 
perfect 15. The cloudier 
it happened to be, the 
fewer points you would 
give it. 

If none of the 
peas in a can are broken, 
off-colored, spotted, or 
budding, you could grant 
a full 15 points. Fewer 
points when the peas do 
not come up to this 
standard. Ten points for 
peas all alike in size 
and color, 35 for peas 
very young and very ten- 
der and 25 for peas that 

taste as if they are very young and tender, succulent and fresh 
from the garden. 

Total up the score for each can. Any score of 90 or over 
would be Grade A. Score between 75 and 89 would be Grade B. Be- 
tween 60 and 74 would be Grade C. Now put the score and grade of 
each can on its label. Also the prices. Now you won't need any 
more advice in deciding which is the best buy for your money. 

All the members of your co-op ought to have a chance to 
do some of this testing and tasting, on different evenings. You 
can score not only peas, but practically any canned fruit or vege- 
table. Experts from the Bureau of Agricultural Economics in the 
United States Department of Agriculture have worked out score 
sheets and explanations for many different foods. Some of this 
information may also be obtained ffom your home demonstration agent. 


Kenneth B. Disher is being appointed Assistant to the 
General Manager of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. Mr. Disher, 
who was formerly museum expert of the National Park Service, has ha 
had varied experience in the ethnological and administrative work. 



By Charles J. Whitfield and Fred C. Newport 

(Reprinted, By Permission, Prom The January Issue Of "Soil 
Conservation," Issued By The United States Department Of Agriculture.) 

Sand dunes have developed in recent years as a result of 
cultivation, grazing and drought on many sections of land through- 
out the Southern Great Plains. No more striking example of the 
destructiveness of man-induced wind erosion is known to occur else- 
where. Under virgin conditions the topography of the land varied 
from nearly level to undulating or gently rolling, with a good 
grass cover and no evidence of dune formation. 

By June 1936 There Had Developed Fifty-Seven Small Dunes 
On This Field Area. The Substratum Around The 
Dunes Was Hard And Compact. 

The dunes, as well as the surrounding eroded lands, have 
approximately no vegetative cover and are valueless in their pres- 
ent conditions; moreover, they are a source of constant menace to 
surrounding fertile farm lands, pastures and buildings. The seri- 
ousness of the situation can be well appreciated when it is real- 
ized that ten years ago there were no dunes on many of these lands 


and that the bulk of the damage has accrued during the past seven 
or eight years. Furthermore, many of these immense piles of sand 
are now found on areas that were never cultivated, that is, native 
prairie sod. 

Little or nothing appears to have been done to cope with 
these severely eroded lands prior to the establishment of the Soil 
Conservation Service's Research Substation at Dalhart, Texas. In- 
asmuch as they are problems of considerable economic importance it 
was considered justifiable to initiate studies with the primary ob- 
jective of determining whether or not such areas could be reclaimed 
for agricultural purposes. Accordingly, actual work was started 
in 1936 on three separate fields, while observations were made on 
numerous others. 

Deep Listing Of Hard Land In Which The Substratum Was Broken In- 
To Clods That Catch And Hold Moving Sand And Do Not Erode Easily. 

The data herein reported were taken from studies conducted 
on a single field of 470 acres which is located eight miles north 
of Dalhart. The field, which runs in a north-south direction, is 
over a mile in length and a half-mile in width. 

Two rain gages were established on the area in September 
1936, to measure precipitation, one being placed in the northern 
half of the field and the other in the center of the southern por- 
tion. Data collected from these gages for the twelve-month period, 
September 1936 through August 1937, showed a total precipitation of 
11.94 inches. Compared to the thirty-one-year average of 17.84 in- 
ches (1906-36) at the TJnited States Dry Land Experiment Station, 


three miles west of Dalhart, this was 5.9 or nearly six inches be- 
low normal. Moreover, from May 29, when 1.97 inches of rain was 
recorded, although sixteen rains fell, not one of these averaged 
over 0.5 of an inch until August 31, on which date 1.13 inches was 
received. These data indicate an abnormal season both as to amount 
and distribution of rainfall. 

Wind velocity data recorded in the vicinity of the area 
where the field work was conducted showed the average wind movement 
to be highest during the five months - February through June - with 
the maximum of 12.39 miles per hour occurring in March. During 
these months velocities averaged above 10.5 miles per hour, with 
February, March and April being especially high. Winds of sand- 
moving velocities come from the south, southwest, west, northwest 

A Repeat Of Ficture At Left, Made October 1, 1937. Sudan Grass 
And Kafir Corn Are Making A Luxurious Growth On An Area Formerly 
Dominated By A Hard Substratum And Sand Dunes. 

and northeast; however, indications are that over a period of sev- 
eral months more winds of this kind come from the southwest. Rec- 
ords being kept by the Dalhart demonstration project in coopera- 
tion with the Research Division show that it is during this period 
that the dust storms are of greatest frequency. The total number 
of dust storms recorded were 61 for 1935, 45 for 1936 and 55 for 

When this field was purchased by Dawson, Fuqua and Price, 
in 1930, it was dominated by natural vegetation with blue grama, 


Bouteloua gracilis and side-oata grama, B. curiipendula, as the 
principal grasses, with sand sage, Artemisia filifolia, as the out- 
standing shrubby plant. The original soils were probably Amarillo 
fine sandy loam and Amarillo loamy fine sand. 

In 1931 the area was cultivated for the first time and 
planted to row crop. It was planted again to a row crop in 1932 
and 1933. Only one crop was harvested during this three-year peri- 
od- Because of drought and crop failure the land lpy idle after 
1933 until this work was started in 1936. 

— " "^^^g&g& Fb SS&^ i 

-mm. mm ■' 



Sand Moving From The Dunes Is Caugfct And Held In 
Lister Rows Between Dunes. 

When this field was surveyed in 1936, it was found that 
there were approximately fifty-seven sand dunes located for the 
most part on the east half of the area. The dunes ranged from one 
to nine feet in height and averaged 161 feet in length and 113 feet 
in width. The substratum around and between the dunes was hard and 
eroded to a depth of ten to twelve inches. The north and south por- 
tions of the field were humraocked and not as badly eroded as the 
center area. 

Work was started in November 1936, on that portion of the 
field dominated by the hard eroded land and sand dunes. The entire 
area, including the dunes, was solidly listed (42-inch rows) to a 
depth of eight to ten inches in an east-west direction, or cross - 


wise to the prevailing wind direction . A 40-horsepower diesel trac- 
tor and a three-row lister were used. The value of deep listing can- 
not be over -emphasized. Shallow listing may only be conducive to 
additional blowing, while deep listing, when done in the fall, will 
not only reduce the blow hazard but prevent erosion, by turning up 
clods of sufficient size to withstand erosion for from one to three 
years. In addition, this cloddy surface catches and holds the ma- 
terial which moves off the sand dunes, causing the latter materially 
to decrease in size and filling the lister furrows with sand - this 
is this badly damaged land being rebuilt. An airplane view made of 
this field in March 1937 . three months after the listing was com- 

A Repeat Of Picture At Left, Indicating How Badly Eroded 
Land Has Been Reclaimed With The Development Of 
Good Row Crops After One Year's Time. 

pleted, shows clearly how the action of the wind may be used for 
redistribution of soil materials to rebuild eroded lands. During 
this period it was estimated that approximately 60 per cent of the 
soil material had been spread back over the field, while the number 
of dunes decreased from fifty-seven to twenty-nine. 

Listing was completed in December 1936 , and it was unneces- 
sary to relist, except on local spots which were exposed when the 
sand dunes moved completely away, leaving the hard, smooth substra- 


No other mechanical treatment was made on the area until 
early June 1937 , when it was planted to row crop. In order to com- 
pare the erosion-resisting qualities of different crops, five 
species (Sudan grass, kafir corn, black amber cane, millet and 
broom corn) were listed, while two species (Sudan and hegari ) were 
drilled on the field. The north and south borders were listed as 
a preventative measure against crop failure and wind erosion, while 
the center portion was drilled that the two types of cover produced 
by these methods might be compared. 

By harvest time (October) a good cover crop was secured 
over the entire field, but growth was especially good on the east 
half of the area where the sand had redistributed itself to a great- 
er extent, a comparison of the various species planted showed that 
broom corn developed a better stand and produced a more vigorous 
growth under the different soil conditions; Sudan grass was second 
in importance and with black amber cane and kafir corn close com- 
petitors for third place. From an erosion resistance standpoint, 
these species also rank in the above order. In other words, broom 
corn and Sudan grass appear more resistant to wind action than the 
other species. However, the forage value of the species would likely 
be in reverse order, with kafir and Sudan ranking at the top. Prob- 
ably more Sudan is planted over the country because of its rapid 
growth, drought resistance and excellent grazing qualities. 

The studies already initiated, in which wind action, the 
force primarily responsible for the severe erosion damage, is suc- 
cessfully used to rebuilt a severely damaged area to the extent 
that crops may be produced at a profit after one year's time, pre- 
sent an open question as to the amount of land "irreparably damaged 1 ! 
in this region. Wind erosion differs from water erosion in one 
primary essential: When soil is carried away by water it is im- 
practical and often impossible to move it back, whereas the action 
of the wind will often reverse itself and return much of the mater- 
ials it was instrumental in carrying away. With this as a guiding 
principle and by the proper use of tillage methods and vegetation, 
lands which were considered so badly eroded as to be no longer of 
value from a crop production standpoint may be reclaimed for agri- 
cultural use. 

****** * 



Excavati on W ork On Reservoir 
Begun At Mission ( California ) Work 
has been started on the excavation 
for the 50,000 gallon reservoir. 
Test holes have been dug to find 
the best location for its construc- 
tion and to determine a location. 
The excavation for the reservoir 
proper has also been started. The 
back and sides were dug out so that 
the masonry walls can be built 
right up against the bank, which 
will strengthen its construction 
very much. 

Plenty of rock for the walls 
is available near the site . As 
soon as the excavation is completed 
the floor will be poured and the 
work of getting the rock and build- 
ing the masonry walls will begin. 

Work On P roposed Heart Butte - 
Birch Creek Truck Trail Retarded At 
Blackfeet (Montana) The progress 
survey of the proposed Heart Butte- 
Birch Creek Truck Trail was hampered 
by sub-zero weather. However, the 
preliminary survey was finished 
later and the location survey was 
started. Because the country is 
very rugged, preference was given 
to grade over alignment. To date, 
Is miles of line has been run. John 
J. Mclner ny. 

Fire Hazar d Reduction At Stand - 
ing Rock (No rth "Dakota ) The work 
on the fire laJies - that is, cutting 
the brush - is coming alone fine. 
The cold weather does not bother us 
much because we are working in the 

timber where the wind cannot reach 
us very easily. The work on the v/ell 
is also coming alon? nicely; however, 
not as quickly as the fire lane work. 
This is due to the fact that we have 
to curb the well as we go along .in 
order to prevent cave-ins- Jack 
White Sagle , Leader . 

Basket Ball Activities At Fort 
Belknap ( Montana ) Tne CCC-ID basket 
ball team has been strengthened by 
a new enrollee who will play center 
position for our team. Up to the 
present time the team has played 16 
games and lost 3 • Recently we played 
a team which was composed of all star 
players from South Dakota. Tne South 
Dakota team won by a score of 42 to 
39, which shows that we have a very 
good team here. We feel as though 
we gained recognition for being able 
to play in the tournament at Havre. 
We have hopes of winning this 
tournament since we have been 
strengthening our team. Harold 
Helgeson, C amp Manager . 

Activities At Mescalero ( New 
Mexico ) With the approach of robins, 
bluebirds and very pleasant weather, 
we experienced a touch of Spring. 
Because of all these indications 
one crew spent a week in making pre- 
parations for landscaping the agency 
near the employees' cottages. Dirt 
was hauled in trucks and filled in 
the necessary places. This is done 
to insure an even, smooth surface. 

Much attention has ceer civen 
to the drainage problems on our truck 


trail. We experienced more diffi- 
culty than we anticipated. However, 
a very neat job of culvert install- 
ment was made. This project is show- 
ing good progress. Perfecto Garcia , 
Camp Manager . 

Forest Stand Improvement At 
N avajo ( New Mexico ) ( Toadlena ) Due 
to the fact that we have had from 
18 to 20 inches of snow, the men 
were moved down to the timber line 
and are working back up the moun- 
tain. The appearance of the forest 
is greatly improved and due to the 
piling of the slashings, the vegeta- 
tion will now have a chance to grow. 
We are piling the slashings at least 
twenty feet from any standing green 

The Indians are glad to have 
this work and the attendance has 
been almost 100$ even though the 
weather has been severe. H. D. 

Thomas . 

Clearing And Grubbing Crew 
Making Fine Progress At Five Civi - 
li zed Tribes ( Oklahoma ) Because of 
the excellent weather conditions 
which have prevailed the clearing 
and grubbing crew has made wonderful 
progress. The boys completed about 
1-g miles up to the present time. 
They still have some mighty rough 
country to contend with. There is 
plenty of grubbing of underbrush 
and small trees. The boys seem to 
enjoy their work and we have no 
trouble in getting them to do 
excellent work. Up to date every- 
thing is progressing with harmony. 
Louis A. Javine . 

Baffle Work At Shawnee ( Okla - 
homa ) To arrive at the desired 

depth of five feet in our baffle pits, 
the excavators had to dig through hard 
clay and due to this, we devoted much 
of our time to these baffle pits. We 
did, however, finish one stone mason- 
ry structure this week and another is 
over two-thirds completed. The struc- 
ture which we are now building has a 
weir width of sixteen and one-half 
feet, with a drop of -five feet. 
Herbert Franklin , Leader . 

Development Of Shelterbelt Proj - 
ect At Potawatomi ( Kansas ) There is 
considerable activity on the Potawa- 
tomi Reservation in the development 
of the Shelterbelt project. We are 
planning to plant 162,000 seedlings 
this spring and the contracts for 
this amount are practically completed. 
Due to the unusually good weather we 
are experiencing, arrangements are 
going forward to plow the ground and 
do the sub-soiling immediately. If 
the weather continues to be so nice, 
we shall plant trees very shortly. 
P. Everett Sperry . 

Work At Wind River .( Wyoming ) 
Work on .the fills at the bridge ap- 
proaches of Truck Trail 202-101 are 
now completed. The machines that 
were at work on these are moving to 
Project #202-140, which is also a 
truck trail. This trail takes off 
north of Maverick Springs Bridge 
from Truck Trail #202-101, from 
where it will go to Crow Creek. The 
R.D. 7 Dozer is cutting of a point 
of Truck Trail #202-101- ^en this 
cut is finished it will improve the 
road, whereas, before, there was a 
blind curve. 

The ranger station was completed. 
The ranger and his family have moved 
in. The enrollees on this job did 


a very neat job of building, con- 
sidering the fa,ct that they were 
■unexperienced in house building. 

During our camp safety meet- 
ing this week, we were visited by 
Robert Friday of the Arapaho Council 
and Gilbert Day of the Shoshone 
Council • 

Fence Line Improvement At 
Cheyenne River ( South Dakotay ~Work 
on this project was completed. Im- 
provements were made on the gates 
and anchors and the full fence line. 
At one point along the lower Felix 
Creek we found the lower wire bro- 
ken. Staples were pulled from six 
posts and hair from an antelope was 
found clinging to the wire, indica- 
ting that the animal ran into it at 
full speed. 

The owners of live-stock in 
these districts are quite satisfied 
with the fence line. We have re- 
ceived many favorable comments from 
the various ranchers. Earl Cummings , 
Senior Foreman. 

Work At Sells ( Arizona ) Work 
on pipe-making progressed very sat- 
isfactorily. We have experimented 
with the number of men required to 
make a maximum amount of pipe at 
the least possible expense. We 
have succeeded in reducing the cost 
to about the same as that of machine- 
made pipe. If we can obtain an ad- 
ditional ICO rings, we will be able 
to reduce the cost still more. The 
men making pipe are working excep- 
tionally well - both individually 
and collectively. Willi am J. Wagner . 

Creosoting Posts At Pipestone 
( Minnesota ) Six thousand posts are 

made up and in piles ready for dipping 
in creosote. The men have a great 
many posts to make up yet. Fine 
spirit has been shown by the crew 
while working on this project. G-eorge 
R. Brown . 

" Basket Social " A Success At 
Flathead ( Montana ) Two meetings were 
recently held in the study hall to 
discuss preparations for the coming 
dance. As this was supposed to have 
been a "basket social", an auction- 
eer had to be selected and credit 
arrangements had to be worked out 
for those who were financially "em- 
barrassed" and who might wish to bid 
on baskets of their choice. The 
second meeting was for the purpose 
of requesting funds from the recrea- 
tion committee, in order that a 
basket ball debt for hall rent could 
be paid off. After all the camp 
members voted in favor of this re- 
quest, the committee agreed to fur- 
nish the required amount. 

A fair crowd from the outside 
attended the dance and some brought 
beautiful baskets. Eleven baskets 
brought approximately twenty-five 
dollaxs. The music was furnished 
by the camp orchestra and a good 
time was had by all. Eugene L. 
Mai lie t . 

Maintaining And Improving Fire 
Trails At Salem Indian School ( Ore- 
gon ) About one-half mile of new 
trail is being constructed on this 
project to shorten the distance of 
trail maintenance through privately- 
owned land. A new trail will make 
it more convenient to get on to the 
reserve by way of the southwest 
corner. The crew is blasting hard 
rock on the first two miles of trail. 



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